On May 15, the Biden-Harris Administration released updated guidance on the current state of the law concerning constitutionally protected prayer and religious expression in public schools.
The guidance includes multiple sections, including an introduction, clarification to the extent to which prayer in public schools is legally protected, and constitutional principles that relate to religious expression in public schools more broadly, not limited to prayer.
Moreover, the guidance highlights requirements under other federal and state laws relevant to prayer and religious expression. These sections are designed to advise state educational agencies and local educational agencies on how to comply with governing law.
The Department’s Office of the General Counsel and the Office of Legal Counsel in the U.S. Department of Justice have verified that the updated guidance reflects the current state of the law concerning constitutionally protected prayer in public elementary and secondary schools.
In a May 15, 2023, letter to chief state school officers and district and school leaders, U.S. Secretary of Education Miguel Cardona wrote:
Prayer and other forms of religious exercise and expression continue to be practices of deep significance to many students, teachers, coaches, and other school employees across a range of diverse faiths and backgrounds. The Department last issued such guidance on January 16, 2020. Since then, the U.S. Supreme Court and other federal and state courts have further considered the scope of fundamental First Amendment protections and addressed their application in public schools. In particular, the Supreme Court’s decision in Kennedy v. Bremerton School District has resulted in increased discussion nationwide about prayer and religious expression in public schools. The Kennedy decision involved a public high school football coach who was suspended for having offered a brief personal prayer on the field after games on three occasions. The Supreme Court held that such prayer was private speech and that the school had not offered a sufficient justification for restricting it.